# uva 442 Matrix Chain Multiplication（栈）

Description

Suppose you have to evaluate an expression like A*B*C*D*E where A,B,C,D and E are matrices. Since matrix multiplication is associative, the order in which multiplications are performed is arbitrary. However, the number of elementary multiplications needed strongly depends on the evaluation order you choose.

For example, let A be a 50*10 matrix, B a 10*20 matrix and C a 20*5 matrix. There are two different strategies to compute A*B*C, namely (A*B)*C and A*(B*C).

The first one takes 15000 elementary multiplications, but the second one only 3500.

Your job is to write a program that determines the number of elementary multiplications needed for a given evaluation strategy.

## Input Specification

Input consists of two parts: a list of matrices and a list of expressions.

The first line of the input file contains one integer n ( ), representing the number of matrices in the first part. The next n lines each contain one capital letter, specifying the name of the matrix, and two integers, specifying the number of rows and columns of the matrix.

The second part of the input file strictly adheres to the following syntax (given in EBNF):

## Output Specification

For each expression found in the second part of the input file, print one line containing the word “error” if evaluation of the expression leads to an error due to non-matching matrices. Otherwise print one line containing the number of elementary multiplications needed to evaluate the expression in the way specified by the parentheses.

# hdu 1506 Largest Rectangle in a Histogram（动态规划或者单调栈）

Description

A histogram is a polygon composed of a sequence of rectangles aligned at a common base line. The rectangles have equal widths but may have different heights. For example, the figure on the left shows the histogram that consists of rectangles with the heights 2, 1, 4, 5, 1, 3, 3, measured in units where 1 is the width of the rectangles:

Usually, histograms are used to represent discrete distributions, e.g., the frequencies of characters in texts. Note that the order of the rectangles, i.e., their heights, is important. Calculate the area of the largest rectangle in a histogram that is aligned at the common base line, too. The figure on the right shows the largest aligned rectangle for the depicted histogram.

Input

The input contains several test cases. Each test case describes a histogram and starts with an integer n, denoting the number of rectangles it is composed of. You may assume that 1 <= n <= 100000. Then follow n integers h1, …, hn, where 0 <= hi <= 1000000000. These numbers denote the heights of the rectangles of the histogram in left-to-right order. The width of each rectangle is 1. A zero follows the input for the last test case.

Output

For each test case output on a single line the area of the largest rectangle in the specified histogram. Remember that this rectangle must be aligned at the common base line.

Sample Input

7 2 1 4 5 1 3 3
4 1000 1000 1000 1000 0

Sample Output

8
4000

dp思路的代码：